hemorrhoid surgery

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Understanding the Procedure, Recovery, and Risks of Haemorrhoid Surgery


Hemorrhoids, though often a topic shrouded in discomfort and embarrassment, are a common medical issue that affects millions of people worldwide. For those who experience severe hemorrhoids that don't respond well to conservative treatments, hemorrhoid surgery may be recommended as an effective solution. In this article, we will delve into the world of hemorrhoid surgery, exploring what it entails, the recovery process, and potential risks associated with the procedure.


Haemorrhoids: An Overview:


Before diving into the details of hemorrhoid surgery, it's essential to grasp what hemorrhoids are. Hemorrhoids, often referred to as piles, are swollen blood vessels located in the rectum or anus. They can be classified into two main types:


1. Internal Hemorrhoids- Since they lack pain-sensing nerves, internal haemorrhoids typically cause no pain when they form inside the rectum. They frequently prolapse out (push out) via the anus and may cause bleeding when bowel motions occur.


2. External Hemorrhoids- Under the skin, near the anus, are areas where haemorrhoids are external. They typically hurt more since they have a lot of pain-sensing nerves. They may result in bleeding, pain, and irritation. Numerous things, such as straining during bowel motions, persistent diarrhoea or constipation, obesity, pregnancy, and genetics, can cause haemorrhoids. While many people can control their haemorrhoid symptoms by altering their lifestyles, eating habits, and using over-the-counter medications, some may need surgical intervention.


When is Hemorrhoid Surgery Necessary?


Hemorrhoid surgery is typically recommended when conservative treatments fail to provide relief, and the patient experiences severe or recurrent symptoms. Indications for surgery may include:


1. Persistent Bleeding - Surgical intervention may be required if internal haemorrhoids bleed regularly, causing anaemia or needing repeated blood transfusions.


2. Prolapsed Hemorrhoids - The only effective treatment for internal haemorrhoids that prolapse and cannot be forced back into the rectum is surgery.


3. Severe Pain - External haemorrhoids that are extremely painful, particularly when lying down or having a bowel movement, may need to be surgically removed.


4. Thrombosed Hemorrhoids - When blood clots develop inside the enlarged blood vessels, thrombosed external haemorrhoids develop. These can cause excruciating agony and may require surgical drainage.


5. Chronic Symptoms - Surgery may be suggested as a long-term therapy for people with persistent, troublesome symptoms that significantly lower their quality of life.


Types of Hemorrhoid Surgery:


Haemorrhoids can be treated surgically using a variety of methods. The type and severity of the haemorrhoids, as well as the patient's general health, determine the best course of action. Typical surgical alternatives include:


1. Hemorrhoidectomy - The total excision of internal or external haemorrhoids is the goal of the traditional surgical technique known as a hemorrhoidectomy. It is usually carried out when completely unconscious. Despite being effective, it may cause severe postoperative discomfort and a lengthier recovery time.


2. Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy (PPH) - Hemorrhoidectomy is a more invasive treatment than stapled hemorrhoidopexy, commonly known as procedure for prolapse and haemorrhoids (PPH). Prolapsed internal haemorrhoids are secured and repositioned with a circular stapler. This treatment frequently results in shorter recovery times and less pain.


3. Rubber Band Ligation - Smaller internal haemorrhoids can be treated with the less invasive treatment known as rubber band ligation. By squeezing a rubber band around the hemorrhoid's base, the blood supply is cut off, causing the haemorrhoid to shrink and come out within a few days.


4. Sclerotherapy - Another minimally invasive method of treating haemorrhoids is sclerotherapy. The haemorrhoid is injected with a chemical solution, which causes it to contract and eventually vanish.


The Recovery Process:

Recovery from hemorrhoid surgery can vary depending on the type of procedure performed and individual factors. Here's what to expect during the recovery period:


1. Pain Management - It's typical to feel some pain and discomfort following surgery, especially with conventional hemorrhoidectomy. To help manage this discomfort, your doctor may offer over-the-counter painkillers or write a prescription for painkillers.


2. Dietary Adjustments - Following surgery, it's essential to maintain a high-fiber diet to promote regular bowel movements and prevent constipation. Staying hydrated is also crucial.


3. Sitz Baths - Warm sitz baths can relieve pain and hasten the healing process multiple times each day. The affected area is submerged in warm water for 10 to 15 minutes during a sitz bath.


4. Activity Restrictions - To avoid complications and promote a speedy recovery following surgery, you might be recommended to refrain from physically demanding tasks and heavy lifting for a while.


5. Follow-Up Appointments - It's crucial to schedule routine follow-up visits with your surgeon to keep track of your development and handle any issues or potential consequences.


Potential Risks and Complications:

Like any surgical procedure, hemorrhoid surgery carries certain risks and potential complications. These may include:


1. Infection - An infection at the surgery site is possible. To reduce this risk, it's critical to adhere to your doctor's postoperative care instructions.


2. Bleeding - Bleeding can occur after surgery, but it is usually minor and resolves on its own. In some cases, severe bleeding may require medical attention.


3. Anal Stenosis - Anal stenosis, a disease in which the anal aperture narrows, can occasionally result from surgery. This may make it difficult to urinate.


4. Fecal Incontinence - Although rare, some individuals may experience temporary or permanent fecal incontinence after hemorrhoid surgery.


5. Recurrence - After surgery, haemorrhoids may return, especially if the underlying reasons, like a lack of dietary fibre, are not treated.




For people with severe or recurrent haemorrhoids that do not improve with conventional therapies, haemorrhoid surgery is an option. It's essential to speak with a medical expert to choose the best surgical strategy for your particular problem. In spite of the fact that surgery can provide relief and enhance quality of life, it's crucial to be aware of the dangers and organised for the healing process. Many people can recover from haemorrhoid surgery effectively and live pain- and discomfort-free lives without haemorrhoids with the right treatment and follow-up.

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