Kidney Transplant Blood Group Matching

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Kidney Transplant Blood Group Matching  


In order to assess the compatibility between a donor and a receiver for a kidney transplant blood group matching is crucial. To reduce the danger of organ rejection, a successful kidney transplant requires compatibility between the recipient's and donor's blood types.


Based on the presence or lack of particular antigens on the surface of red blood cells, distinct blood types are created from human blood. The two most crucial blood group systems for kidney transplants are the Rh factor and the ABO blood group system.


Blood Group System ABO:


a. Four major categories of blood exist: A, B, AB, and O.

b. Red blood cells with A antigens and plasma with B antibodies are known as type A blood.

c. Red blood cells with B antigens and plasma with A antibodies are known as type B blood.

d. Red blood cells from people with type AB blood contain both A and B antigens, but there are no A or B antibodies in the plasma (universal receiver).

e. Blood of type O (universal donor) lacks A or B antigens on red blood cells and contains both A and B antibodies.


The usual rule in kidney transplantation is that a recipient can receive a kidney from a donor if their ABO blood types are compatible or identical. The compatibility chart is shown below:


a. Donor blood types A and O are compatible with Recipient Blood Type A.

b. B and O blood types can be used as donors for Recipient Blood Type B.

c. A, B, AB, and O donors can give to recipients with blood type AB (universal recipient).

d. Blood Type O Donor (universal donor) is able to provide for Blood Type O Recipient.


Rh Factor:


1. Another antigen found on the surface of red blood cells is the Rh factor.


2. Either a person possesses the Rh antigen or they don't, making them either Rh-positive or Rh-negative.


3. In general, the ABO blood type system is more important for kidney transplantation than the Rh factor. Without major problems, a Rh-positive receiver can get a kidney from a Rh-negative donor.


4. In some uncommon situations, kidney transplants can still be done via desensitisation and other specialised techniques even when there are no ABO blood type matches that are compatible. Such procedures, however, are more difficult and run the danger of being rejected.


To increase the likelihood of a successful kidney transplant and reduce complications, the transplant team must precisely match the recipient's and donor's blood types.

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